Rosca, I., Rosca, V. Meaningful access: policy, management and orchestration. IJAMC (in print 2008)
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Keywords: meaningful access; policy management; interfaced operations; orchestrating functions; procedural aggregation; coordination tools; component concretisation rules; evolving scenarios; explanatory cooperation; software engineering.
Paper abstract: Access management for learning communities requires a unified theory, sustaining the implementation of instructional policies, for 'social networks'. The management method we have reached is based on the integration of content-rich resources in 'operations' that model/control the access of those seeking to learn something by using them, with or without assistance. Activities may be sequenced emergently or planned, using scenarios (or 'functions' - a biological metaphor). The proposed formula offers multiple facilitations: guiding, sequencing, coordination, matching, tracing etc. The gradual concretisation of operational elements (human and machine interprets/executors) can rely on technical, semantic and administrative indexing and on the 'metafunctions' mechanism.

Rosca, I., Rosca, V. Access management for knowledge communities - a policy orchestration formula. LORNET'07 conference, 2007
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Keywords: meaningful access, access management policy, access policy management, "operations" and "functions" as procedure coordination (orchestration) tools, component concretization in evolving scenarios, explanatory cooperation, CSCW/L, software engineering
Paper abstract: Access management for learning communities requires a unified theory, nourishing the description, definition and control of instructional policies for "social networks". We have refined this issue in a series of projects, which we succinctly relate- to explain the management method we have reached. It is based on the integration of content-rich resources in "operations" that model/control the access of those seeking to learn something by using them, with or without assistance. These "orchestration scores" for both human and machine interprets/executors - support the procedural aggregation of resources. The activities may be sequenced emergently (using "operation" repositories) or planned, using scenarios ("functions" - a biological metaphor). The proposed formula aims at multiple facilitations: description, coordination, instruction, connection, control. The gradual concretisation of operational elements may rely on semantic and administrative indexing and on the "metafunctions" mechanism. Our current prototyping work refines and applies these ideas in areas like software engineering, CSCW/L.
Abstract of the presentation (6 nov 2007) 1. Introducing the issue of "meaningful access": from resources repository, personal rights, team coordination, technical interoperation- to accessing for acting for learning 2. Quest for refining a management formula: from instructive co-action (NUAC), resources encapsulation (ION) and aggregation (GADISA), system management (Explora) modelling (MOT+) and orchestration (VAL) to LORNET and TERMS 3. A formula for access policies management : the "operation" (topology, aggregation, aspects, concretisation, management) 4. In guise of conclusion: new exploratory applications 4.1 Use cases evolving to support functions: refining global management of local access) 4.2 Instructive cooperation in software production: refining the orchestration for explanative co-action) 4.3 Managing extension cascades for TELOS-like systems: refining the administration of planned operation chains 4.4 Public management of civic research: refining emergent chains
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Rosca, I. Five years for five perspectives on TELOS, LORNET'06 conference, 2006
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Keywords: TELOS, LORNET, learning and knowledge managemen systems, expanding architectures, emergent and orchestrated activities, structural and procedural agregation, global knowledge evolution management, administration of production cascades.
Paper abstract: This paper explains the ideas proposed by the conceptual architecture of the distributed system "TELOS", describing the concerns that led to them, along the MOT- ADISA- EXPLORA- ION- GEFO- LORNET project chain… The struggle between integrating applications and decomposing them in components- usable for recomposing systems with variable geometry… The prototyping of a resource controller supporting the aggregation by "fusion" of secondary resources (which wrap the primary ones)… The introduction of "functional" aggregation, binding resources to operations, tying processes modelling, orchestration and reproduction… The management of system evolution- with "meta functions"… The shift from structural composition to service concatenation, supported by a communication bus and "interface-agents" controlled by a kernel…The treatment of semantic inter-operability, using "knowledge domains"- as reference systems…To finally define an evolving and plastic middleware, combining structural extension (by distribution, recursive aggregation and phylogentic production cascades) with segmentation- on administrative criteria.
Abstract of the presentation (10 nov 2006) 1 Introduction : history of a conceptual quest 2 Main objectives: produce, deliver, intermediate 3 Vision 1: extending the resources space; emergent mode 4 Vision 2: reproducing processes; orchestrating mode 5 Vision 3: distributing services; technical match 6 Vision 4: managing knowledge evolution; semantic match 7 Vision 5: managing production cascades; administrative match 8 Current work: managing service negotiation
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Rosca, I. The risks of virtual learning, ICVL'2006 Proceedings, Bucharest Univ Press, Marin Vlada &others ed., pp 155-163, 2006.
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Keywords: instructional design, technology of education, research rhetoric and marketing, distributed cognition, explanation model, knowledge management, neo-colonialism, moral responsibility of science
Paper abstract: I dedicated myself to the explicative phenomenon, its multiple aspects and dimensions forcing me to a prolonged interdisciplinary study, synthesized in my doctoral thesis. I deepened the problem of the instrumental support for valuable didactic rituals in some Canadian instructional design projects. Enriched by these experiences, and provoked by the conference's title, I want to signal the drawbacks and risks of "technologising" education. The propagandistic invocation of "modernization" or "efficiency" can cover other goals: creation of a perpetual educational market for reproducible, low-quality solutions. Some circular justifications may also arise (signalling degenerations). From polemics fed by antagonistic convictions (progressive versus conservatory views) to consensuses based on "paradigms" - the "technology versus education" debate reveals the absence of an integrative science.
Abstract of the presentation: 1 Media and learning- an endless debate 2 Education, technology and business- a confrontation of interests 3 The engineering of community life- a giant responsibility 4 Science, research and technology of education- reasons of a crises 5 Modelling explanation- an interdisciplinary challenge 6 Semantic and instrumentation- a chain of projects 7 Conclusions- the defence of the didactical "pas de deux"
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Rosca, I. Explanation modelling and competences management, InSciT2006 Merida, Knowledge and information management track, Proceedings in current research in information science and technologies, Vicente P.Guerrero-Bote ed., pp. 423-429, 2006
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Keywords: knowledge representation, competence, explanation, semantic matching, pedagogical indexation, transdiscplinary modelling
Paper abstract: I have dedicated many years to the study of the explanation phenomenon- which stands to the base of instructional/ informational/ supporting processes- and which I have tried to understand, model and instrument. But the difficulties encountered in the unitary treatment of systems-in-process integrating objects, persons, knowledge and activities- proved to be redoubtable. I wished to contribute to the emergence of the science of explanation or to stimulate an interdisciplinary effort in this direction. I continued my researches in LICEF projects, which aimed the modelling/ instrumentation of instructional systems distributed on Internet, trying to value the potential for synaptic matching of the computer network. To allow the blend of emergent and orchestrated activities composing the physiology of knowledge (information) based systems I have relied on the indexation of all the elements relative to the same knowledge reference system. In the same time, watching the evolution of knowledge embodied in participants and represented in informational structures I proposed the declaration of the explicative qualities of the support documents and persons, using a specific ontology. These pedagogical competences (postures) can orientate the semantic equilibrium around the information/instruction operations- supporting advanced semantic services (matching, alerting etc.). Although interesting, these developments are still far from building a method for solving documentary equations such as "Find that system of explicative support tools that allows a user to accomplish a given competence increase". The theoretical foundation of such a problem space confronts us once more with the problem of modelling the explanation phenomenon.
Abstract of the presentation (27 oct 2006): 1. From information to knowledge: competences 2. From learning to explanation as competence operators 3. Difficulties in modeling explanations 4. Principle observations about the explanation phenomena 5. Consequences :pedagogical competences, posture indexation, matching services 6. Competence indexation for the emergent mode 7. Concretization for adapting orchestration mode 8. Competence optimization problems
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Rosca, I. Organising a public information space about the crimes of a totalitarian regime, InSciT2006 Merida, Digital libraries track. Proceedings in Current research in information science and technologies, Vicente P.Guerrero-Bote ed. pp 191-197, 2006
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Keywords: digital libraries, documentary space, collective memory, social networks for democracy, history of totalitarianism, semantic and pragmatic web, evolving reference system
Paper abstract: The institutions dedicated to the organisation of the collective memory on the crimes of the fallen Eastern European regimes need urgently appropriate informational infrastructures. Adopting an "action research" methodology, I have already involved myself in this process, organising a digital library, dedicated to the history of the communist totalitarianism in Romania, accessible online. Starting from my research on knowledge management and propagation systems, I plan to pass on the next phase, organising an emancipated document space, that would catalyse the activity of the community interested in the consultation and development of the library. Through this intervention, I am trying to promote the SOMCRAC project (Space for the Organisation of the Memory on the Communist regime's Abuses and Crimes). Adhering to the "semantic web" and "pragmatic web" trends, the specifications exposed here propose: a Participatory and progressive definition of an ontology modelling state terror, evolving in pair with the clarification of the social problem and usable as a reference system b Better organisation of the digital document repository and of bibliographic records (indexed on the ontology and maintaining reference consistence when this one evolves). c Referencing the documents, participants and activities (collecting and validating testimonies, collectively constructing the indictment, organising repairing actions etc) on the same ontology- for representing or coordinating coherently the life of the "moral community" using the library. d Considering the ethical and juridical aspects and interoperating with other projects that aim at revealing and fighting the pathology of human condition.
Abstract of the presentation (26 oct 2006): Introduction 1. Context created by the fall of communism in Eastern Europe 2. The CE position and the passage from words to facts 3. Four project objectives. Description 4. Involved Romanian institutions and need for general interaction 5. Similar contexts 6. Current project situation 7. Conceptual architecture for the next phase 8. Contradictory conditions, provocative for IS Conclusion 9. Four cooperation tracks
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Rosca, I. Knowledge and object phylogenetic production cascades - the TELOS case, CE'2006 conference, Antibes Knowledge in CE track, Proccedings in Leading the web in concurrent engineering, Parisa Godus &others ed., 2006, pp 296-304, IOS pres, 2006
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Keywords: instructional systems engineering, semantic indexed procedures, phylogenetic production cascades, LORNET, TELOS, concurrent engineering
Paper abstract: In the unitary design of systems involving people, objects, processes and concepts, the engineering acquires a hybrid character, requiring the coagulation between the contributions based on diverse expertises and posing coordination and communication problems inside mixed design teams. The LORNET project federates research institutions from Canada for the construction of a "middleware" supporting technical and semantic inter-operation between campuses and repositories distributed on the Internet. It is a double challenge: an effort of concurrent research for instrumenting the instructional concurrent engineering. Observing the circle between "doing by learning" and "learning by doing", activity coordination systems can be enriched with a "semantic layer" (facilitating the procedures execution by alleviating their comprehension and learning). Reciprocally, the production and management of distributed pedagogical activities require collaborative procedure modelling and orchestration. This paper is addressed to those seeking different perspectives in dealing with complexity. I summarize it as follows: mixing the management of persons, objects, processes and knowledge; using the procedures' models for their orchestration; approaching a "4d" vision for extending the observation of short process ("ontogenetic" and "physiological") to those of long-term evolutions; unitary management of phylogenetic cascades- reproducing structures and processes- based on metafunctions
Abstract of the presentation (19 sept 2006): I Common goals: managing systems involving objects, persons and knowledge, to produce systems involving objects, persons and knowledge, to produce….and so on II Concurrent Instructional Engineering a Combining persons and objects in managing knowledge b Combining sequencing and parallelism in orchestrating concurrence c Combining structures and processes in a "4d" systemic vision d Combining planning and emergence in adaptable scenarios e Combining analytic and pragmatic approaches in treating complexity f Combining technical, semantic and administrative criteria for facilitating interoperability III IE experimented solutions, interesting for CE: GEFO, TELOS, LORNET. IV Manage concurrent research
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Paquette G., Rosca I., Mihaila S., Masmoudi A. TELOS, a service-oriented framework to support learning and knowledge Management, E-Learning Networked Environments and Architectures: a Knowledge Processing Perspective, S. Pierre (Ed), Springer-Verlag, 2006
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Keywords: software engineering for learning and knowledge management systems, TELOS architecture, recursive agregation, ecological and aspect oriented vision, semantic indexation
Paper abstract: This chapter presents the basic orientations, the main use cases and the conceptual framework of a TeleLearning Operating System. TELOS is a system under development within the LORNET research network ( aiming to integrate components and services, and research results, produced by the different LORNET teams. TELOS research is at the convergence of three main trends: learning object repositories that facilitate the access to knowledge resources; learning and knowledge management support systems that use these referentials as building blocks; and the integration of these referentials and these systems in the context of the Semantic Web.

Rosca, I. Instrumentation de la gestion des connaissances au sein d'une communeaute de pratique sur le web semantique (Knowledge management instrumentation for a community of practice on the semantic Web), Symposium REF-2005, Montpellier ( 2005)
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Keywords: knowledge management systems, competence conditions, evolution and equilibrum, semantic workflow mangement

Rosca, I. Paquettte, G., (demo Rosca, V.). TELOS conceptual framework. Presentation and demonstrative illustration of the conceptual architecture, LOR'04 congress - Towards the educational semantic web
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Abstract of the presentation (19 nov 2006): The goal of this presentation is to reveal the main aspects of the TELOS physiology (the problem) and to illustrate the basic ideas of the TELOS conceptual architecture (the solution). It is not a detailed explanation, but mainly a provocative introduction. The illustrative examples are not theoretical. They were realized as working prototypes (ION, GADISA, VAL) integrated in the research studies of some previous LICEF projects (ADISA, EXPLORA, SAVOIRNET, EDUSOURCE etc.) The presentation is organized on three "stories", corresponding to three important use levels. The "first level story" shows a participant using a resource manager that helps him to find, to obtain and to use a rich set off distributed resources and services. The activity scenario is emergent. The user, helped by the resources controller, has the freedom (and the responsibility) of chaining the necessary operations- converging to his goal. The resources databases and the central manager must be produced in a previous phase. In the "second level story" the participant is not let alone in the labyrinth of the available resources. He is equipped with a "prepared selection" pertinent to his goal, organized on various principles (grouping, integrating, orchestrating). This "aggregate" is composed by a designer, in a previous phase. The composition (aggregation, authoring) tools may also be fabricated by engineers. The preparing aggregation process, applied "in cascade", represents the main means of facilitation. In the "third level story", the system offers powerful support for every phase of the cascade: exploring the aggregates for using the integrated resources, composing the coagulating aggregates, constructing the aggregators. Specialized aggregation tools lead us to the main TELOS production cascade : core- LKMS-LKMA-LKMP. This strong generative vision (producing a "seed", capable to pilot the creation of an "aggregate", capable to support the use of the aggregated resources, for finally producing learning results), complements the vision of TELOS as a distributed resources manager. Summary: 1 Introduction: TELOS behavior and use 2: Level 1 use: services cascade (3- actor services)(4- kernel services) Level 2 use: aggregation cascade (5- aggregation process) Level 3 use: facilitation cascade 6: Prototype demonstration : an integrative story (7- demonstration chain) 8: Cascade genesis: the learning facilitation spiral 9 Conclusion: TELOS Architecture
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Illustrations and Simulations of TELOS Processes and Integration (G. Paquette, I. Rosca, M. Hatala, C. Brooks, O. Basir, A. El Saddik /
Abstract: The Explor@-2.1 system has been chosen to illustrate the integration of LORNET research components, tools and services from theme 1 to 5 and to simulate aspects of the TELOS architecture while we are building it. In this presentation, we will use Explor@2.1 to show the construction of different LKMSs (Learning and Knowledge Management Systems) that can be used by designers to build with each very different learning and knowledge applications (courses, learning events, support of communities of practice). We will also demonstrate the integration of alternative tools and interfaces for indexing and searching learning object repositories or aggregating learning resources for end users. We will uncover actual limitation and potential solutions to some of the problems.
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Rosca, I., Rosca, V. Pedagogical workflow management with functions, LOR'04 congress, Montreal
Abstract of the presentation (18 nov 2004): The creative reproduction of modeled procedures is a complex but important facility of a learning management system. We can model the knowledge understanding, as a cognitive procedure. The learning of procedural knowledge may use the exploration of procedure models that can orchestrate "learning by doing" experiences. This "pedagogical management of a procedure" supposes a coordination of explanatory shared activities. Another important case is the "management of pedagogical procedures" that suppose the modeling and the orchestration of the modeled pedagogic cooperation. Auxiliary educational activities (resource conception or diffusion, domain description and knowledge indexing, competence definition and evaluation etc.) may also be managed with active procedure models. The "function" concept is an aggregative structure reflecting a primary inspiring process (in the edition phase) and orchestrating the replication of more or less similar process (in the exploration phase). This neutral term (suggesting the conversion process-structure-process which characterizes physiologic phenomena) was chosen because of the multiple roles of the function in exploration: guiding the realization of the operation chain, marking the advancement and obtaining help, facilitating the management of the aggregated resources, coordinating the cooperative operations, etc. The developing of the GEFO (function manager) was an active research way in the labyrinth of this rich problematic. It will be used to demonstrate some interesting features. Summary: 1. Pedagogy and management of procedures. 2. Aggregation by orchestration. 3. GEFO prototype as a specification driver 4. Reproducing procedures by functions 5. Exploring functions: observing, declaring, being guided 6. Exploring functions: operating and cooperating 7.Composing functions: manual editing 8. Generating a function by intercepting emergent resources use 9. Editing functions, driven by meta-functions 10. Composing a meta-function by generation and editing
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Rosca, I., Rosca, V. TELOS architecture and function aggregation- illustrated by working prototypes. Prototype demonstration for the LOR'04 congress, Montreal
Abstract of the demonstration (18 nov 2004): This "stereo-demonstration" is organized in to parallel (correlated) tracks (panels, presentation windows):A The "illustrated aspect track" will signal, on the TELOS architecture map, the aspect explained by the current demonstration step B The "exemplification track" will show the behavior of the prototype used as an illustrator tool. We can demonstrate all the chain, step by step, choosing the minimum duration of every presentation. We can also present separately some steps, with more details, if the visiting public makes the request.
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Paquette, G., Rosca, I. An Ontology-based Referencing of Actors, Operations and Resources in eLearning Systems, SW-EL, 2004
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Paper abstract: We explore some of the multiple relationships between two very active research fields in eLearning and Knowledge Management research: educational modeling languages and ontologies. Our previous research projects in the last 10 years have shown the central importance of the association between the learning activities and the knowledge and skills that they target. Studies on this relationship have led to the concept, we will present here, of a semantically referenced educational function grouping actors, operations and resources or learning objects. The referencing method proposed here is both qualitative (structured by an ontology) and quantitative, using a bi-dimensional skill/performance metric to situate the mastery level of knowledge associated to an actor, an operation or a resource in a multi-actor learning scenario
Keywords: ontology, semantic reference, knowledge management systems, semantic orchestration, competence equilibrum , functions

Rogozan, D., Paquette, G., Rosca, I.. Évolution de l'ontologie utilisée comme référentiel sémantique dans un systeme de téléapprentissage (Evolution of an ontology used as semantic reference system in a tele-learning system), Université de Technologie de Compiegne, 243-249, (2004)
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Keywords: Représentation et gestion de connaissances, Méthodologie, Évolution de l'ontologie, Analyse de la compatibilité, Référencement sémantique évolutif
Paper abstract: L'utilisation d'une ontologie comme référentiel sémantique dans un systeme de téléapprentissage demande l'évolution de cette ontologie. Dans cet article nous proposons premierement une méthodologie pour gérer cette évolution d'une maniere consistante. L'évolution de l'ontologie peut causer des incompatibilités qui affectent l'acces aux éléments référencés par les entités ontologiques. Afin de résoudre ce probleme, nous proposons une analyse des effets des changements sur la compatibilité entre les versions ontologiques et nous utilisons les résultats de cette analyse pour définir un procédé permettant la préservation du référencement sémantique des éléments apres l'évolution de l'ontologie.

Marino, O., Paquette, G., De la Teja, I., Leonard, M., Lundgren-Cayrol, K., Rosca, I., Contamine, J., Rogozan, D. Les langages de modélisation pédagogique: un pont entre l'ingénierie pédagogique et les systemes de diffusion de laformation en ligne (Pedagogical modeling languages: a bridge between educational engineering and online information systems). 72e congress AGFAS, 2004 and Université Lille -CUEEP - 10 juin 2004

Dufresne, A., Basque, J., Rosca, I., Rosca V., Paquette, G., El Khettab, H., Leonard, M., Lundgren-Cayrol, K., & Villot-Leclerc, E. Modélisation et intégration de fonctions de soutien aux concepteurs de systemes de téléapprentissage dans l'environnement ADISA. ACFAS '2004, Montreal
Resumé: Nous présentons un modele de soutien aux concepteurs pour l'utilisation d'ADISA, un outil développé au LICEF pour la conception de systemes de téléapprentissage, qui utilise la méthodologie de conception MISA et le logiciel de modélisation MOT. Suite a l'observation des difficultés rencontrées par les concepteurs, et en nous inspirant des principes de la méthode d'ingénierie pédagogique MISA, un ensemble de regles ont été développées et implantées dans un conseiller épiphyte a la tâche. Celles-ci présentent en contexte et de façon adaptative différentes formes de soutien aux concepteurs, notamment, sur le fonctionnement du systeme, la démarche de conception, les stratégies d'adaptation de la méthode et d'évaluation des productions. Le systeme de soutien est une application du conseiller générique présenté l'année derniere; il est formalisé dans une structure décrivant le modele de la tâche, de l'environnement et des usagers, et dans un ensemble de regles d'explication ou d'adaptation de l'interface utilisant ce modele. Le prototype en développement integre divers outils développés au LICEF et au CIRTA, soit le systeme ADISA, le Gestionnaire de Ressources - DIVA 1.2.1, le conseiller générique - DIVA 3.2. Des ponts de communication ont été créés entre ces différentes applications afin de suivre la progression des utilisateurs du systeme et d'apporter une aide contextuelle. Nous présenterons les regles et l'architecture du systeme de conseil.
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Rosca , I. Réflexions sur les conditions personnelles de la modélisation de l'explication. Ou l'usage de l'introscope en modélisation systémique (Reflexion on the personal experience in explanation modelisation-or the use of the "introscope" in systemic modelisation), Questions Vives, Vol 2, No3, 2004
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Mots cles: methodologie de recherche, narration, introscope, subjectivite, explication, modelisation
Resumé: Nos convictions profondes sur la condition de l'homme- individu et de l'Homme- communauté conditionnent l'interprétation des méthodes de recherche et la description des phénomenes éducatifs. Les objectifs concrets de notre action explicative influencent aussi le filtre de la modélisation, la stratégie de recherche, les criteres d'évaluation du modele proposé. Ces dépendances d'intérets, souvent implicites voire inconscientes que je nomme "conditions personnelles de la modélisation" obscurcissent les considérations sur la représentation des phénomenes et sur la légitimité épistémologique. Il serait utile qu'elles soient mises en évidence pour éviter des confusions, des pseudo- contradictions, des manipulations, ouvrir des nouvelles possibilités d'interprétation. Ainsi on peut se demander si la démarche d'explicitation des conditions personnelles (intimes) de la méthodologie pourrait-elle etre organisée de façon structurelle ou exige un traitement qualitatif tel que celui de la narration introspective?

Paquette, G., Rosca, I. Modeling the delivery physiology of distributed learning systems. Technology, Instruction, Cognition and Learning (TICL) , v1, No2, 2003
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Keywords: Delivery models, instructional design, use case modeling, distributed learning, learning objects, distance education, web based learning
Paper abstract: This article results from a new development of the MISA instructional engineering method and its web-based support system, ADISA. Delivery models are important because they represent the actors, their operations and interactions and the resources the use or produce for other actor when the system will be in operation. Without sufficient planning, distributed learning systems will generally present high levels of technical and organizational noise that are an obstacle to learning. We will present a delivery model technique which aims to solve these problems. We will show that this technique allows us to represent the learning system at a global level, modeling distance learning paradigms such as distributed classrooms, self-Training on the Web, online training, communities of practice, as well as performance support systems. At a lower level, we model functions within the learning system (physiologies of the organism) such as competency management, learning assessment, resource use or collaboration management. Finally, we discuss the role of delivery and function models in the aggregation of resources or learning objects. The approach is proposed as way to go beyond the actual learning objects integration paradigms for which international metadata standards are being actually developed.

Rosca I., Paquette.G. Organic Aggregation of Knowledge Objects in Educational Systems, Canadian Journal of Learning Technologies, Volume 28-3, Fall 2002, (pp. 11-26)
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Keywords: organic approach, object and processes aggregation, functions, learning and knowledge objects, learning management systems, EXPLORA
Paper abstract : We propose an organic approach to an educational web-based system where learning objects, operations on these objects, and actors that perform them are aggregated in meaningful ways. The users of a learning system must be able to observe it globally, at different levels and from different viewpoints. They must be able to propose adaptations and improvements constantly using means of observation integrated with the means of action. For this, we need to provide inspectable and executable models of the learning system, to be used as prisms for understanding and control of operations. We propose reference these models with educational ontologies developed for instructional engineering. The implementation of these ideas in the Explor@-II LCMS provides examples. Conversely, the next implementation will benefit from the discussion presented here.

Paquette, G., Rosca, I: EXPLORA2, An open educational operating system for managing learning objects repositories, CANARIE Workshop, Deuxieme Atelier national canadien sur le cyberapprentissage, Montréal, 25-26 février (2002)
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Rosca, I., Rosca, V. Adisa practical demonstration, CANARIE Workshop, Deuxieme Atelier national canadien sur le cyberapprentissage, Montréal, 25-26 février (2002)
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Rosca, I., Paquette, G. The Explora2 system, Congres TeleLearning, Vancouver (2001)
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(TELELEARNING 2001: The Future of (e)Learning is co-organised by the TeleLearning Network Inc. and the Canadian Association for Distance Education (CADE). It will be held in Vancouver, Canada, from 10 to13 November 2001)

Paquette, G., Rosca, I., De la Teja, I., Léonard, M., Lundgren-Cayrol, K. Web-based Support for the Instructional Engineering of E-learning Systems, Proceedings of WebNet'2001, Orlando FL, October, W. Fowler, J. Hasebrook (eds.) pp. 981-987.(2001)
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Keywords: Instructional design, learning management systems, MISA, ADISA, cooperative editing, Internet distributed applications
Paper abstract: The rapid evolution of e-learning models increases the number of decisions that have to be made when developing web-based learning systems. ADISA is a web-based system for a project team designing a e-learning system while working on the web. It is based on the MISA method that defines 35 main tasks through which the user produces the design specifications of a learning system, describing knowledge, skills and competencies, learning scenarios, activities and resources, learning materials, and finally, the delivery processes. The innovation in MISA and ADISA is three-fold. a) A key component of ADISA is its object-oriented knowledge modeling approach sustained by a graphic model editor. b) The processes embedded in the method encompass all the dimensions of a telelearning system. c) Software engineering principles are integrated to support systemic design by the project team. The paper describes both the pedagogical and technical aspects of the ADISA system.

Lundgren-Cayrol, K., G. Paquette, A. Miara, F. Bergeron, J. Rivard and I. Rosca (2001). Explor@ Advisory Agent : Tracing the Student's Trail, WebNet'01 Conference, Orlando, USA
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Keywords: Student Modeling; Adaptive Systems; Interaction and Feedback; Intelligent Assistance
Paper abstract: This paper presents research and development of an adaptive web-based system called Explor@ Advisory Agent capable of tailoring advice to the individual student's needs, actions and reactions towards pedagogical events as well as according to diagnosis of content acquisition. Explor@ Advisory Agent consists of two sub-systems, the Advice Editor and the Student Advisor. The Editor allows course designers to enter the instructional structure as well as the content structure in form of a hierarchical tree, tagging corresponding pages, as well as entering rules (conditions and operations) for how and when advice are to appear. The Student Advisor displays the student's progression through the two structures by indicating what is achieved or completed. The system traces the student's progression according to knowledge acquisition through questions, questionnaires and results on test, and according to how the student navigates through the instructional material. In this manner, the student modeling relies on both the overlay and diagnostic modeling techniques. Future research aims at introducing peer or team collaboration and assistance by allowing the agent to match learners' progress by displaying the progression bars, if the learner chooses to participate.

Henri, F., Lundgren, K., Rosca, I., Boyd, G., Bourdeau, J. La collaboration en télé-apprentissage, AGFAS congres, 2001

Rosca, I., Morin, A. L'explication a-t-elle encore sa place dans les communications pédagogiques informatisées ? 68e congress AGFAS, 2000, 19 mai
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Resumé: C'est a la suite d'une tentative de démonstration de la place essentielle du professeur dans l'enseignement informatisé (Morin, Rosca,Cipte 1996) que les deux auteurs se posent aujourd'hui la question de l'explication dans les communications informatisées en éducation. Pour mieux cerner la problématique, chaque auteur se positionne dans un grand courant théorique soit celui du traitement de l'information, soit celui du constructivisme. Ces deux courants s'affrontent, se confrontent, s'écoutent, se réfutent pour finalement en venir a un dialogue prometteur. Grâce a une méthodologie de recherche narrative, chaque protagoniste soutient un courant bien incarnée dans sa vie d'étudiant et de chercheur pour démontrer la nécessité du compromis suivant les circonstances dans laquelle se déroule l'apprentissage. Ce proces de la place de l'explication est d'actualité et mérite une réflexion ontologique qui démontre la nécessité de la présence essentielle de l'etre vivant, de l'enseignant, du professeur, de l'expert dansla communication d'un exposé afin que ressorte la cohérence thématique, peu importe la forme de présentation. Mais aussi, l'explication requiert de tenir compte de la nécessité qu'a tout apprenant d'apprendre par lui-meme pour devenir un etre autonome et cultivé; c'est ce que permet de réaliser un dialogue (synchrone ou a-synchrone) qui parviendrait a un pas de deux harmonieux entre l'éleve et le maître.

Morin, A., Rosca, I. Vision systémique de l'explication dans la formation. (A system vision about explanation in education), 68e congress AGFAS' 2000, 18 mai. Coloque: Technologie éducative : la formation des maîtres et des professeurs aux NTIC.
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Resumé: En adoptant une véritable vision systémique en technologie de l'éducation, nous nous situons dans une perspective qui permet de contester quelques paradigmes courants. Une concentration trop exclusive des constructivistes sur l'univers cognitif de l'apprenant releve d'un réductionnisme semblable a celui que l'on attribuait a la conception behavioriste. Or, le systeme d'une explication rassemble des sous-systemes cognitifs et des matériaux en interaction. Il s'agit d'un systeme de systemes qui, comme un organisme pluricellulaire, integre le métabolisme des parties. Il nous oblige a observer a la fois le systeme cognitif de celui qui explique et de celui qui apprend c'est-a-dire la physiologie de ce bi-systeme que forme le couple enseignant-apprenant lors de l'explication. Le regard systémique nous révele qu'un systeme vit organiquement dans le temps, évolue grâce a des processus continus; et n'est donc pas une chaîne automatisée de situations statiques. Une vision systémique saisit le caractere complexe et coagulant " de la communication, évitant ainsi d'évacuer l'enseignant du processus de l'explication informatisée pour aller au-dela d'une pure manipulation des machines a expliquer. En conséquence, nous soutenons que le noyau indivisible du systeme explicatif est le couple enseignant-apprenant et que les outils informatiques doivent etre conçus dans un contexte d'explication dialoguale. La formation aux NTIC du futur enseignant ou du praticien devrait inclure cette communication essentielle dans l'apprentissage d'un contenu informatisé.

Rosca, I., Morin, A. Peut-on redécouvrir le dialogue entre l'enseignant et l'apprenant dans le processus de l'instruction informatisée? (May we rediscover the dialog between teacher and learner in the processes of computer based instruction?), 64e Acfas congress, Montreal, 1996
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Mots clefs: CSCW, CSCE, co-action, triangulation de l'action, applications partagees, CBT
Resumé: La tres grande majorité des recherches effectuées soit en multimédia soit en didacticiels laissent peu de place a la prise en compte de variables actuelles, dynamiques et réelles entre l'enseignant et l'apprenant dans le processus de l'instruction. Dans cette recherche, nous prévoyons intégrer des solutions fondées sur la communication avec l'enseignant (ou son remplaçant) pour parvenir a des formules hybrides mais flexibles dans le triangle apprenant- ordinateur- enseignant. Ces trois dernieres variables de l'instruction disposent de deux centres de décision complexes, spécialisés, capables de spontanéité et liés par les mécanismes naturels du dialogue. La bipolarité du dialogue humain ne peut pas etre totalement "simulée" dans les systemes qui remplacent l'enseignant. Plus le feed-back réel est absent, plus il est difficile de réaliser la négociation - essentielle en instruction. Pour permettre l'intervention de l'enseignant, le "CMC" (computer mediated communication) et "CSCW" (computer supported cooperative work) offrent des instruments intéressants. L'enseignement a distance, l'enseignement coopératif, la classe virtuelle exploitent ces nouvelles techniques et l'idée de partenariat. Ces dernieres approches n'analysent pas suffisamment l' enseignant comme partenaire d'une collaboration par l'intermédiaire de l'ordinateur. Il faudra donc expliciter le spécifique de la collaboration enseignant-étudiant pour orienter et favoriser le design des instruments destinés a promouvoir ce dialogue-essentiel dans l'explication de l'instruction.